Frequently Asked Question

Our Specialization

Structured Cabling

Structured CablingStructured Cabling design is the planning, drawing, documentation, and management of the lowest layer of the OSI network model in the physical layer. The physical layer is the foundation of any network whether it is data, voice, video or alarms...


Network Support

Network SupportOur network expertise and knowledge is one of the best in the industry. We have implemented many complex network infrastructures, and have spent a major part of our revenues in developing...


GIS/Remote Sensing

GIS/Remote SensingProviding expert consulting in Resource Mapping through Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry, Image Interpreation and Analysis, Disaster Management System and more..




Gigabit Connectivity-Fiber Vs Copper

Cat 6 cabling continues to gain ground against Cat 5e. However, major deployments of Cat 5e cabling products are still going on. The continuing popularity of Cat 5e may be attributed to its capacity to deliver the gigabit speed. It is also a very reasonable solution, something that's a major criterion in most projects.

The most popular horizontal cabling systems today are Cat 5e and Cat 6. Both these systems are capable of carrying data in the gigabit speed range. Fiber (two-core) is also seen in a few applications in the form of fiber-to-the-home (FTTH).
As for the advent of 10G-over-copper, one needs to only look at history to understand that copper, at the same speed has always been cheaper to deploy than fiber.

Fiber's biggest advantage is no-interference. Fiber is completely future proof. It remains unaffected by EMI and RFI effects. Two core tight-jacketed cables are normally used for these applications. Mostly multimode 62.5u fiber goes in multi-storied buildings as a vertical backbone and 50u laser graded or single-mode fiber goes as a horizontal backbone in the big campus-wide projects.

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The ever confusing Standards and Categories

ISO/IEC and TIA/EIA. Both the ISO/IEC and TIA/EIA standards organizations have defined generic cabling systems suitable for medium and large offices. Details of these can be found in the ISO/IEC IS 11801 standard for Customer Premises Cabling and TIA/EIA 568B. ISO/IEC IS 11801, TIA/EIA 568B and the European version, EN 50173-1, are all key standards for cabling installation. These cover similar areas, but use different approaches to conformity. ISO/IEC IS 11801 is a global standard that has evolved to meet the needs of all geographic areas. As a result, some of its requirements are very broad.

Cable Categories TIA/EIA 568B and ISO/IEC IS 11801 specify several cabling categories. The first two categories are suited only to voice and data communications up to 4 Mb/s and are seldom used in data networking applications.

Category 3 cabling is generally regarded as suitable only for networks operating up to 16 Mb/s using active equipment. Primary usage is for backbone cabling to support voice (but not VoIP).

Category 4 cable was developed to support communications at l6 Mb/s over runs up to 100 meters, but is now considered obsolete.

Category 5 cabling was designed to support applications up to 100 Mb/s. Reliable support for 1 Gb/s requires additional performance specifications, and existing installations may not comply. Category 5 cabling is now also considered obsolete. Category 5e (Enhanced Category 5) is an upgrade to Category 5 specifications that was targeted as minimally compliant support of Gigabit Ethernet (1000BASE-T). The maximum frequency specified for Categories 5 and 5e is 100 MHz. 1 Gb/s signalling is accomplished via PAM5 encoding scheme transmitted over all cable pairs.

Category 6 cabling was designed with a significant improvement in bandwidth, which is nearly double the bandwidth of Category 5e for robust support of Gigabit Ethernet (1000BASE-T) over the maximum frequency specified of 250 MHz. Category 6 cabling is also recommended if mid-span PoE is required to be supported as an application since the additional connections introduced by the mid-span equipment may have a detrimental effect on the crosstalk and return loss performance of the end-to-end 'channel'.

Category 6a cabling is currently a draft standard to meet or exceed the requirements of 10 Gb/s Ethernet (10GBASE-T). It extends the cabling bandwidth beyond Category 6 by specifying the frequency range out to 500 MHz, and includes the alien cross talk specifications that are vital for the support of 10 Gb/s Ethernet.

Category 7 cabling is specified only in ISO/IEC IS 11801 and CENELEC EN50173-1, but not in TIA-568B. It is specified to a frequency of 600 MHz and requires the use of bulky and expensive individually paired shielded cables. The connector for Category 7 is a complex switched version of an RJ45 that does not seem to have gained significant share in the Category 7 market. A non-RJ45 version is also allowed when the customer is prepared to give up compatibility with RJ45 plugs. Category 7 is not expected to gain wide market acceptance and its market share has been predicted at 0.4% worldwide by 2006.

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Power-over-Ethernet Technology

Power-over-Ethernet technology (PoE) allows IP telephones, wireless LAN access points, webcams, and many other appliances to receive power as well as data over Ethernet protocol, using the existing LAN cabling.

Also, with the power-over-Ethernet (PoE) technology coming into play, wireless access points and other such devices will need structured cabling as the underlying infrastructure.

The technology works by injecting DC-converted power over the spare pairs of Cat 5 and above cables. Various WLAN equipment and end-user devices including laptops and VoIP phones can then be plugged into the cable to draw DC power. PoE, as one can see, converges not just telephony and Internet, but also power-on a single medium, copper. It also addresses the problem of an IP call getting disconnected in the event of a general power failure.

The growth in PoE is directly linked to the rapid growth in IP-based applications (telephony and video) as also wireless LAN protocols. The case for providing PoE through the structured cabling system is based on the fact that provision of power should be done in a transparent (non-interfering) manner. The passive solution lends itself to such a transparent provision as long as power is injected over the non-data carrying pairs in the UTP cabling, and as long as the device used for injecting power does not have the potential to interfere with sensitive switches and patch panels.

IEEE 802.3af defines requirements for PoE. This currently calls for a consistent provision of 15.4 watts of power to all IEEE-compliant powered devices (PDs). PDs listed include IP phones, IP cameras, WLAN access points, access control devices, etc. The freezing of the 802.3af standard will allow an explosion of PoE devices and installations. The PoE standard has the potential to change the way IT deploys big applications. For many IT managers, starting now to plan for PoE will pay dividends later.

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Customer’s Buying Tips on Structured Cabling

Look at the layout first: Enterprises need to keep the physical layout and structure in view when doing the procurement. An implementation plan can typically have these components-vertical cabling, horizontal cabling, the backbone media, and user points.

When enterprise locations are spread over two or more nearby buildings, it calls for external cabling. Internal cabling takes care of intra-building needs, and can be across various floors (vertical cabling) or floor-wise (horizontal cabling). Map requirements to technologies: Costs can be optimized, without compromising on the performance, by opting for different levels and types of technologies.

For example, it's better to install a fiber-optic backbone to interconnect the buildings. Additionally, there can be some coupling with multi-paired copper telephone cables for the connection of buildings with the public telephone network and the provision of internal lines/services between buildings.

Internal cabling needs special attention: Internal cabling should be designed in such a way that it's able to meet present as well as future needs. This is because the internal cabling is much more complex than external cabling and an improper plan can make a future expansion a big nightmare. In other words, the infrastructure should be fully extendable, especially in terms of technologies.

Ensure Robustness: Robustness of a structured cabling solution should be high on the buyer's priority. That comes from the solution's ability to facilitate smooth and uninterrupted heterogeneous traffic while ensuring high network uptime.

Look at fiber's no-interference advantage: Fiber is completely future proof. It remains unaffected by EMI and RFI effects. Two core tight-jacketed cables are normally used for these applications. Mostly multimode 62.5u fiber goes in multi-storied buildings as a vertical backbone and 50u laser graded or single-mode fiber goes as a horizontal backbone in the big campus-wide projects.

Make it future-proof: In years to come, since the gigabit reaches to the desktop, the necessity of 10-gigabit backbones will be a must thing for the bandwidth-hungry applications. With 10-gigabit backbones installed, companies will have the capability to begin providing gigabit Ethernet services to workstations and, eventually, to the desktop in order to support applications such as streaming video, high-end graphics etc. As the speed and bandwidth of the network increases the distance that copper cable can support decreases. If looking at a very long-term plan, it will be a good option to use single-mode fiber since it will be a much superior solution at a relatively much lower cost. Real-time cabling management could be very effective in the premises networking where different groups use the same backbones and share the same resources. It's very essential to identify the various groups and provide them the set up and bandwidth accordingly.

For major projects, sophisticated gigabit solutions are also available. Large enterprises may find such solutions more suitable. It is also important to note that cabling infrastructure is generally considered a 10 year investment as opposed to two or three years for electronics.

For further clarification , preparing a bill of material and services for structured cabling,
please call on us at +91 33 2334 2975 / 76 or mail at

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Why won't 10-gigabit Ethernet work to 100m on today's Category 6?

This is because of the increased levels of alien cross talk or interference from adjacent cables and connectors that the higher frequencies generate. This requires improved cable and connector designs to compensate for this technical obstruction. Furthermore, installation practices must be considered to minimize the effects of alien cross talk.

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What is the relationship between the IEEE and 10-gigabit Ethernet over copper?

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standards Association (IEEE) is the leading developer of global industry standards in a broad-range of industries. Ethernet is the most widely used network protocol standard in the world. 10-gigabit Ethernet over copper is currently the subject of an IEEE task force working toward a standard for Ethernet at 10-gigabits per second over unshielded twisted pair cabling (P802.3an). This will allow users to run data 10 times faster over copper than the current standards allow.

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When will 10-gigabit Ethernet be available?

The ratified standard is expected in 2006. The fact is, as infrastructure, cabling systems must precede the future electronic requirements and protocols. This was the case with Category 5e and Category 6 in anticipation of gigabit Ethernet.

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Will 10-gigabit Ethernet work with Category 5e or Category 6 standards compliant systems?

10-gigabit Ethernet will have a very limited range over current Category 6 systems at best (up to 55 m), and in worse case scenarios, where substandard product was installed, it may not work at all. The IEEE has determined that a Category 5e solution was not feasible and would not be investigated further.

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Does a 10-gigabit Ethernet system have to be shielded?

Early indications showed that the cable might need to be shielded.

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Could I use fiber instead?

10-gigabit Ethernet fiber standard has been established for some time. However, the cost of installation and electronics for fiber to the desk has greatly slowed its acceptance.

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Why should I install a 10-gigabit Ethernet capable structured cabling system now?

It's all about viewing your cabling infrastructure as a long-term investment. Pulling up false floors or working in ceiling spaces is hard enough the first time. But if your system does not meet your future needs, then the level of disruption to business operations and additional cost down the road is much greater. For a slight increase of only a few percentage points in the cost of the project, it will save clients re-cabling their premises in the coming years. This gives true future proofing and flexibility.

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What does 10-gigabit Ethernet mean to an end-user?

If you have installed a gigabit Ethernet system using Category 5e or Category 6, then a single file that takes 30 seconds to send will be reduced to 3 seconds. Multiply this productivity benefit across your business and it is easy to understand the rapid adoption of the latest networking technologies by businesses.

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Is this a ratified standard?

No, this is not yet a ratified standard.

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Where will 10-gigabit Ethernet be used ?

10-gigabit Ethernet over UTP will find its first applications in data centers, medical facilities, higher education campuses and enterprises that routinely work with large electronic files that require increased bandwidth. However, as new technologies emerge, all network users will quickly realize the benefits of the more advanced infrastructure.

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I'm responsible for our company's voice and data cabling. What are my options?

Cabling options are wide-ranging and diverse. Depending on your company's voice and data needs, the choices are numerous. There are 6 parts to a company's structured cabling system.

  • The building entrance or Minimum Point Of Entrance.
  • The equipment / server room.
  • Backbone cabling.
  • The telecommunications closet.
  • Horizontal cabling.
  • Work area / end user.

The WINGS can help you in all of these areas. In a typical project, we'll install a feeder cable to the MPOE and tie cables or fiber to the server room. For most of our customers, we install 1 Category 3 cable for voice, and 2 Category 5e cables for network use to each user. In the rapidly changing telecommunications industry, Category 5e has become the cable of choice to accommodate new cabling transmission standards, including Gigabit Ethernet. We normally split the voice cables into 2 RJ11 jacks for flexibility.

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What products and services do you offer?

We provide everything needed for your complete cabling infrastructure. This includes the cable, the jacks, the patch panels and the voice termination field. We also provide and install open racks, server racks, cable sleeves and cable ladder for wiring closets and server rooms.

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What about fiber?

As most organizations, 80 percent of business is dependent on the network. In the last 15 years, network traffic has increased tremendously. With users sending and receiving graphics-heavy files and multimedia applications, fiber is playing a larger role in many networks. We install, terminate and test multi-mode and single-mode fiber. This includes indoor and outside plant fiber. We've kept abreast of advances in the manufacture, termination and testing standards of fiber optic cable.

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How do we extend our dial tone and T-1 circuits?

Along with the horizontal cabling, we install the cables, called "feeders", from your buildings MPOE (minimum point of entry) into your PBX or server room. These cables are usually Category 3 rated and come in increments of 25 pairs, the most common being 100 pair.

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What type of testing do you do? Do you provide certification reports?

We scan every single cable we install. We use scanners made by FLUKE (the best on the market in our humble opinion). We use DTX Analyser for CAT 5 cable, CAT 5e and CAT 6 testing. These scanners are periodically calibrated, and updated to assure that the latest standards are utilized. For fiber testing, we use Yokogawa OTDR, Power meter and Laser source to find out test results. These results are used for preparing Certification reports are available on disk or in binder form. For voice cables we use a standard pair scanner made by Fluke.

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Will I receive a building / cable raceway, route diagram ?

For an additional charge The WINGS will provide a CAD cabling floor-plan, provided we can obtain a current background. We use the latest versions of AutoCAD and plot in color. However for a large project we do it free of cost.

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We've never done business with The WINGS before. What are your credentials?

For the last fifteen years we have regularly upgraded skills of all our PM’s , Supervisors and Technicians through different trainings and certifications. We carry full liability insurance and Workman's Comp and we are PF registered. We have done business with some of the most recognized companies and educational institutions in INDIA. Further, we are equally proud of some of our smaller, lesser-known clients whom we have been able to help expand (see our Client List). In a time when cabling installation errors account for over 50% of network problems, we are extremely proud of the fact that our call-back rate for cabling repairs is less than .05%. Our technicians are well trained and we take great care to complete all jobs on time.

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At what point in time do I need to bring the structured cabling vendors in?

One of the biggest mistakes we see made is contacting the cabling vendors too late into the project. Planning for your communications cabling should be done at the same time that you plan for your electrical needs, your construction changes, and your modular furniture. We can assist you in the planning of your cabling infrastructure, provided we are brought into the loop early in the planning process.

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How can I make sure that the cabling I'm installing now will meet data transmission requirements in the future?

This may sound a little technical, but we will try to keep it as simple as I can. Since the first cabling standard was introduced in 1991 for unshielded twisted pair (UTP), there has been a series of changes and updates. To keep up with ever increasing network speeds, new transmission specifications have been promoted by the manufacturers and endorsed by the standards community. We've seen network speeds increase from 10 Megabits/sec (10 million bits per second) in the 1980's to 1 Gigabit/sec (1 billion bits per second) in the late 1990's, all over UTP. Today, standards are being discussed for 10 Gigabit/sec. Ethernet (although maybe not over copper).

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What exactly does Structured Cabling Design means?

Structured Cabling design is the planning, drawing, documentation, and management of the lowest layer of the OSI network model in the physical layer. The physical layer is the foundation of any network whether it is data, voice, video or alarms, and defines the physical media upon which signals or data is transmitted through the network. Approximately 70% of your network is composed of passive devices such as cable, cross-connect blocks, and patch panels. Documenting these network components is critical to keep a network finely tuned. The physical medium can be copper cable, coaxial cable, optical fiber, wireless, or satellite. The WINGS is an expert in this field of Structured Cabling Designing.

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What is GIS and where do I get it?

"Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a system comprised of hardware, software, data, and people. A user can purchase GIS software & services from The WINGS.GIS data can be created (we have our team to generate baseline GIS data). Individuals should be sure that license agreements do not prohibit purchasers from sharing data with others. GIS people are the most costly component of a GIS system. It is critical that staff receive proper GIS training and stay current as the technology changes."

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What is the importance of having a GIS?

GIS is the Natural State's resource for gathering and presenting information on Arkansas geographical data, such as natural resources, bodies of water, roads, etc., in order to benefit the planning and development of cities, counties, industries, and various government entities. GIS can benefit Arkansas' business industry and economy by aiding employers in finding the perfect geographical location for their company or industry, thus bringing new jobs to that area and to the state. GIS can also assist emergency management teams in locating correct addresses, as well as determining how many residential structures are within a fire district. The possibilities of GIS are endless.

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What does having a GIS do for the average person?

"The average person relies on GIS for a number of decision making processes. These processes include getting efficient services such as weather forecasts, efficient Enhanced response, driving directions from Internet sites, and various other services. Though the average person is not 'pushing the buttons' in the system, GIS data and processes are providing the average person with answers."

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What are the benefits over cost of GIS?

"Benefits should be measured over time. Proper GIS applications provide intelligent planning for the most efficient use of resources. Because the information is digital, it also allows for continuous refinement, enhancement, and increased efficiency."

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What various kinds of information are available through GIS?

"Over 500 data layers are available for use in GIS. Examples of GIS data: Elevation, Transportation, Site Data, Soils, Hydrology, Geology, Ownership, and Imagery."

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What is the difference between GIS and a map?

"GIS is the application that compares the tabular data and illustrates the spatial relationships. It allows for selective analysis and informed decisions. The end results of the various analyses are usually illustrated as 'maps.' However, the layman mistakes GIS as simply mapmaking."

"A map is generally static and might be thought of as a cartographic output. Once created, the map does not provide any additional information. Conversely, GIS is an integrated system that enables a user to ask numerous questions of a database and visualize the answers."

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What are some non-map generation uses of GIS?

"GIS can be used to create charts and graphs of databases to verify the quality of the database. These processes can also be performed in standard spreadsheet packages. Ordinarily, GIS is used to map the database so one can visualize the location of events. Generally speaking, answers acquired from map analysis performed in a GIS could be concluded through standard database queries. However, the answers may not be as easy to interpret."

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What advantages do I, as a citizen gain from GIS?

"If you are performing the analysis in a GIS, you have an intimate knowledge of the data being used, its accuracy, and the type of spatial relationships desired and illustrated. If you only see the end product but know that it was derived from tabular information, you begin to appreciate geospatial patterns and relationships, the first steps in GIS."

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How can GIS be used to make decisions?

"GIS is a planning tool. It combines known tabular data with spatial relationships to analyze the relationships and determine the most efficient use of limited resources. It can also be combined with modeling applications to determine 'what if' scenarios, or to compare results of applied resources or natural events over time."

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How can GIS help my city/county?

"GIS can assist a city or a county with a number of daily processes: planning, waste water/utilities, voting precincts, road/bridge maintenance, etc."

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The WINGS as a GIS consultant to do a specific job?

"The WINGS as a GIS consultants respond to user requests. Our Information Office can provide individuals with assistance in placing a proper request."

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How accurate is the system?

"GIS accuracy varies depending on the data. It is critical that users refer to metadata to determine the accuracy of the data and make sure it is suitable for their application.

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What is the difference between GIS and surveying?

"GIS provides a graphical representation of the real world. GIS can be used to perform research and analysis on 'what if' scenarios. Surveying is a profession that involves more precise measurements of the earth's surface. Surveys also produce a legal document. GIS should not be used or held as legally authoritative. GIS should only be used to evaluate a particular problem, and in some cases may provide the need for a survey."

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How can GIS help land surveyors?

"There are certainly lots of articles about GIS and Surveying in our website."

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How can GIS be applied to my job?

"There is a geospatial relationship for all events that occur on the earth's surface. Beyond the hardware, software, and personnel required to operate the GIS, the only limitations are imagination and supporting data. Approach applications from the end-user perspective: what relationships do they want to see and analyze?"

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How can GIS be beneficial for all forms of government?

"GIS can be beneficial in many ways, but in the simplest of terms, it connects people to information through geography. Government can use GIS to store, manage, and access information about its facilities, people, and environment. It gives government officials a way to visualize data that helps them make decisions about project planning and economic development. It also allows them to disseminate a large quantity of information to the public in terms of where things and events are located."

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What is the startup cost and what is the maintenance cost of GIS?

"The cost to start up a GIS will vary dependent on the depth at which you begin. To begin a basic/low cost GIS would not be too expensive. As for maintenance costs, the only cost would be the salary for the GIS Technician to maintain the data."

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How can GIS help our city maintain its utility system?

"GIS can benefit a utility by providing seamless integration of facility mapping. GIS can help the utility authenticate what type, how many, and where their assets are located, as well as when they are installed, what type of material they are made of, what their size is, and many other attributes. This allows the utility managers to model changes to the system or changes within the system. They can also print maps and reports to help them plan their improvement projects. Maps may also be used to help field technicians locate work order information.

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What coordinate system should I use?

"For a city-based or county-based project, use State Plane Coordinate System. For a statewide or large multi-county project, use Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) or Geographic system."

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What is metadata and why is it important?

"Metadata is a 'list of ingredients and procedures' that describes the overall product whether it be a cake or nuclear reactor. End-users need to know what the ingredients are and how they were combined so they can tell if the cake will be good to eat or have ingredients that allergy sufferers should be aware of. It also lets the user know how accurately the procedures were followed and the quality of the end product - is it safe to use?"

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How do I structure metadata?

"Metadata should be structured in a Geographic Data Committee manner. There are numerous documents on the Web and embedded within various software packages that will enable a user to create metadata. Metadata can be saved in a word document, HTML, XML, or standard text file."

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What is GPS?

"Global Positioning System (GPS) is a constellation of high orbit satellites operating in tandem with a ground receiver that can interpret earth-based locations."

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What is a geoTIFF?

"The geoTIFF file format embeds image registration information directly into the raster file. GeoTIFF is an industry-neutral raster file format widely used and recognized by all of the major GIS software vendors."

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What is projection?

"A projection is a mathematical model used to define 3-dimensional earth space onto a flat plane."

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What is datum?

"A datum is a mathematical model used to determine overall height of continental land masses like India. A common datum is the India, more commonly known as WGS 84."

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Why do projection and datum matter?

"When a person uses the measurement tools found in most GIS systems to measure coordinate location, distances, or areas, the result is an improved answer; therefore, both of these mathematical models matter."

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GIS for Project Management & Consulting?

The WINGS have a dedicated team for project management & consulting enquiries. They mostly develop customize solutions for project management, for consulting different models are used from time to time.

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